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Article posted Mar 13 2006, 4:12 PM Category: History Source: Payvand Print

What Really Happed to the Shah of Iran

By Ernst Schroeder

My name is Ernst Schroeder, and since I have some Iranian friends from school and review your online magazine occasionally, I thought I'd pass on the following three page quote from a book I read a few months ago entitled, "A Century Of War : Anglo-American Oil Politics and the New World Order", which was written by William Engdahl, a German historianm . This is a book about how oil and politics have been intertwined for the past 100 years.

I submit the below passage for direct publishing on your website, as I think the quote will prove to be significant for anyone of Persian descent.

"In November 1978, President Carter named the Bilderberg group's George Ball, another member of the Trilateral Commission, to head a special White House Iran task force under the National Security Council's Brzezinski. Ball recommended that Washington drop support for the Shah of Iran and support the fundamentalistic Islamic opposition of Ayatollah Khomeini. Robert Bowie from the CIA was one of the lead 'case officers' in the new CIA-led coup against the man their covert actions had placed into power 25 years earlier.

Their scheme was based on a detailed study of the phenomenon of Islamic fundamentalism, as presented by British Islamic expert, Dr. Bernard Lewis, then on assignment at Princeton University in the United States. Lewis's scheme, which was unveiled at the May 1979 Bilderberg meeting in Austria, endorsed the radical Muslim Brotherhood movement behind Khomeini, in order to promote balkanization of the entire Muslim Near East along tribal and religious lines. Lewis argued that the West should encourage autonomous groups such as the Kurds, Armenians, Lebanese Maronites, Ethiopian Copts, Azerbaijani Turks, and so forth. The chaos would spread in what he termed an 'Arc of Crisis,' which would spill over into Muslim regions of the Soviet Union.

The coup against the Shah, like that against Mossadegh in 1953, was run by British and American intelligence, with the bombastic American, Brzezinski, taking public 'credit' for getting rid of the 'corrupt' Shah, while the British characteristically remained safely in the background.

During 1978, negotiations were under way between the Shah's government and British Petroleum for renewal of the 25-year old extraction agreement. By October 1978, the talks had collapsed over a British 'offer' which demanded exclusive rights to Iran's future oil output, while refusing to guarantee purchase of the oil. With their dependence on British-controlled export apparently at an end, Iran appeared on the verge of independence in its oil sales policy for the first time since 1953, with eager prospective buyers in Germany, France, Japan and elsewhere. In its lead editorial that September, Iran's Kayhan International stated:


In retrospect, the 25-year partnership with the [British Petroleum] consortium and the 50-year relationship with British Petroleum which preceded it, have not been satisfactory ones for Iran … Looking to the future, NIOC [National Iranian Oil Company] should plan to handle all operations by itself.


London was blackmailing and putting enormous economic pressure on the Shah's regime by refusing to buy Iranian oil production, taking only 3 million or so barrels daily of an agreed minimum of 5 million barrels per day. This imposed dramatic revenue pressures on Iran, which provided the context in which religious discontent against the Shah could be fanned by trained agitators deployed by British and U.S. intelligence. In addition, strikes among oil workers at this critical juncture crippled Iranian oil production.

As Iran's domestic economic troubles grew, American 'security' advisers to the Shah's Savak secret police implemented a policy of ever more brutal repression, in a manner calculated to maximize popular antipathy to the Shah. At the same time, the Carter administration cynically began protesting abuses of 'human rights' under the Shah.

British Petroleum reportedly began to organize capital flight out of Iran, through its strong influence in Iran's financial and banking community. The British Broadcasting Corporation's Persian-language broadcasts, with dozens of Persian-speaking BBC 'correspondents' sent into even the smallest village, drummed up hysteria against the Shah. The BBC gave Ayatollah Khomeini a full propaganda platform inside Iran during this time. The British government-owned broadcasting organization refused to give the Shah's government an equal chance to reply. Repeated personal appeals from the Shah to the BBC yielded no result. Anglo-American intelligence was committed to toppling the Shah. The Shah fled in January, and by February 1979, Khomeini had been flown into Tehran to proclaim the establishment of his repressive theocratic state to replace the Shah's government.

Reflecting on his downfall months later, shortly before his death, the Shah noted from exile,


I did not know it then – perhaps I did not want to know – but it is clear to me now that the Americans wanted me out. Clearly this is what the human rights advocates in the State Department wanted … What was I to make of the Administration's sudden decision to call former Under Secretary of State George Ball to the White House as an adviser on Iran? … Ball was among those Americans who wanted to abandon me and ultimately my country.[1][1]


With the fall of the Shah and the coming to power of the fanatical Khomeini adherents in Iran, chaos was unleashed. By May 1979, the new Khomeini regime had singled out the country's nuclear power development plans and announced cancellation of the entire program for French and German nuclear reactor construction.

Iran's oil exports to the world were suddenly cut off, some 3 million barrels per day. Curiously, Saudi Arabian production in the critical days of January 1979 was also cut by some 2 million barrels per day. To add to the pressures on world oil supply, British Petroleum declared force majeure and cancelled major contracts for oil supply. Prices on the Rotterdam spot market, heavily influenced by BP and Royal Cutch Shell as the largest oil traders, soared in early 1979 as a result. The second oil shock of the 1970s was fully under way.

Indications are that the actual planners of the Iranian Khomeini coup in London and within the senior ranks of the U.S. liberal establishment decided to keep President Carter largely ignorant of the policy and its ultimate objectives. The ensuing energy crisis in the United States was a major factor in bringing about Carter's defeat a year later.

There was never a real shortage in the world supply of petroleum. Existing Saudi and Kuwaiti production capacities could at any time have met the 5-6 million barrels per day temporary shortfall, as a U.S. congressional investigation by the General Accounting Office months later confirmed.

Unusually low reserve stocks of oil held by the Seven Sisters oil multinationals contributed to creating a devastating world oil price shock, with prices for crude oil soaring from a level of some $14 per barrel in 1978 towards the astronomical heights of $40 per barrel for some grades of crude on the spot market. Long gasoline lines across America contributed to a general sense of panic, and Carter energy secretary and former CIA director, James R. Schlesinger, did not help calm matters when he told Congress and the media in February 1979 that the Iranian oil shortfall was 'prospectively more serious' than the 1973 Arab oil embargo.[2][2]

The Carter administration's Trilateral Commission foreign policy further ensured that any European effort from Germany and France to develop more cooperative trade, economic and diplomatic relations with their Soviet neighbor, under the umbrella of détente and various Soviet-west European energy agreements, was also thrown into disarray.

Carter's security adviser, Zbigniew Brzezinski, and secretary of state, Cyrus Vance, implemented their 'Arc of Crisis' policy, spreading the instability of the Iranian revolution throughout the perimeter around the Soviet Union. Throughout the Islamic perimeter from Pakistan to Iran, U.S. initiatives created instability or worse."


-- William Engdahl, A Century of War: Anglo-American Oil Politics and the New World Order, © 1992, 2004. Pluto Press Ltd. Pages 171-174.

[1][1] In 1978, the Iranian Ettelaat published an article accusing Khomeini of being a British agent. The clerics organized violent demonstrations in response, which led to the flight of the Shah months later. See U.S. Library of Congress Country Studies, Iran. The Coming of the Revolution. December 1987. The role of BBC Persian broadcasts in the ousting of the Shah is detailed in Hossein Shahidi. 'BBC Persian Service 60 years on.' The Iranian. September 24, 2001. The BBC was so much identified with Khomeini that it won the name 'Ayatollah BBC.'

[2][2] Comptroller General of the United States. 'Iranian Oil Cutoff: Reduced Petroleum Supplies and Inadequate U.S. Government Response.' Report to Congress by General Accounting Office. 1979.





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Comments 1 - 7 of 7 Add Comment Page 1 of 1
Mostaque ALI.

Posted: Jul 28 2006, 12:00 AM

Link
Yes I agree with the above. If anybody has further information around this please email it to me at mostaqueali@gmail.com.

Here are my comments around this issue:

I believe from my instincts that there is a link between the Carter administration covertly supplying the Afghan fundamentalists from JULY 1979, which progressed to the Taliban/al-Qaeda in Afghanistan, and the fall of the Shah in February 1979. Why, because of the two countries are next to each other? No, not just that. Why did the Carter administration pressurize the Shah to be more democratic and soft around 1977? Why didn't the Carter administration give the same message to the Saudis, ten times worse than the Shah? Or the Argentinian military regime? Or the Brazilian military regime? Or the Chilean military regime? Or the Marcos regime in the Philippines? Why did the Carter administration topple the Democratic government of Bhutto, later executed, and bring in the military in Pakistan, if they believed in Democracy so much? The point is as with the present there was no noble mission for Democracy, but policies to bolster Israels position viz Muslim countries.

States often say one thing, but often they can have an hidden agenda for their actions and speeches. The rumor why Carter really wanted the Shah removed are many fold:

1. That the Shah it is alleged gave large sums of money to the American Republican party during the late sixties and early seventies, and when Carter came to power and found out, he wanted revenge. So he destabilized the Shah 1977-79, and humiliated him, an ally of America for 27 years, when he was very ill, by not allowing him to stay in the USA for treatment. There is an element of nasty petty meanness to this, and for me an indication that the Carter administration did indeed topple the Shah.

2. The Shah was instrumental in the oil price rises in the 1970's. During the sixties the Shah resisted pressure to raise oil prices. By the early seventies some of his more well informed advisers started telling him that the oil that was being sold, was way under priced from its real market value. The global oil industry had been for a long time controlled by a the 'Seven Sisters'--Western oil companies, and the Shah's economic advisers told him that the $2.8 a barrel price around 1971, was tantamount to selling the oil at mineral water rates, with the bulk of the profits from the mineral water sale going to Western oil companies. The 1973 Arab/Israeli war, and the Arab defeat again, with the Americans overtly supporting the Israelis, the Arab OPEC producers decided to act, and the Shah for different reasons joined them. In 1971 it was $2.8 a barrel, and by 1979 it was I think around $40 a barrel. A lot of people in the West were not happy with the Shah as the largest OPEC producer--5.5 million barrels. By the way some American oil analysts are now saying that $100 a barrel may be sustainable and possible in the future which will not harm the global economy and the oil industry, as long as it is done gradually. So you had some far sighted and good economists in your country. I hope the mullahs have not frightened off any of the modern ones.

3. Iran I believe translated means 'Land of the Aryans'. The Shah may have called himself the 'Light of all Aryans'. Jews who are a little basic and take things literally (Extremist Zionists) believe that the Aryan race caused the Holocaust 1933-45--Hitler/Nazism. Some obviously flushed with American power and unquestioned American backing may want to settle scores. This reminds me of American soldiers shooting on sight surrendering German soldiers in Normandy and saying, 'You nasty Japs'. In fact they were Tartars from the Ukraine. As with the Tartars its a case of mistaken identity.

The term Aryan has very different meanings in Europe and Asia. In Europe the term 'Aryan' is a racial superiority statement. The Master race. An idea/Unfounded myth not based on reality, cobbled together by a regime headed by a fruity megalomaniac without knowledge of the actual facts, a mere 80 years ago, and based on a mishmash of ideas and names from globally formidable human thinkers from Germany, Nietzsche, Hegel and Kant, wrongly taken out of context, and applied with such appalling results.'I am Aryan and I am better than any body else, and further more I can treat others with less respect'. The Holocaust by the way was the product of European colonialism in the eighteenth and ninetieth century, and is not the responsibility of the real Aryans residing in Asia, the belief that non-Europeans are inferior and to be treated with less respect--Jews, Gypsies and of course Eurasian Slavs. Remember that 50-70 million people died in Asia, Africa and Central and South America when under colonial rule.

In Asia where the real Aryans originate from, Central Asia, and where 80% of all 'Iranians' live, it is an ethnic statement; 'I am Iranian' , ' I am Vietnamese' " I am Chinese" etc. No better than any body else. Now of course most Aryans refer to themselves as Indian, Pakistani, Afghan, Central Asia, Ukrainian etc. In Asia the long term existence of Aryan's is a historical fact and not merely an idea. Persia has been called Iran for at least four thousand years. The same with Afghanistan and the Subcontinent. When Aryan's in significant numbers move into an area they make their presence felt naturally, in various ways. Thus when Aryan's moved into India they called their new land 'Aryavarta' a term a few thousand years old. In Afghanistan the land was called thousands of years ago 'Ariana'. They write poetry and other thousand year old scriptures such as the 'Mahabhrata' 'Rig Veda' or the 'Shahname'. They build fire temples or the like found in Iran and Afghanistan http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iranian_peoples , http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aryan . Such basic facts don't exists in Europe.

But some Jews with simple minds may have taken a different message when they read about Iran's Aryan background, and so they toppled the Shah, and installed mullahs in his place, the primary purpose of the mullahs is the propagation of what is essentially an Arab/Jewish religion--Islam. The same in neighboring Afghanistan "Ariana'. Two steps behind the Jews on this issue are a very small number of Europeans who do believe what Hitler said that Aryans are in certain parts of Europe only-----a historical fact not provable, beyond the fact that certain Iranian tribes crossed from the Ukraine into Hungary and Bulgaria . Iranians as a race are not tall, blond and blue eyed. The greater Islamic and thus Arabic Iran and Afghanistan become the more satisfaction is gained by a few Europeans and the Jews for two different reasons. In small pockets of the West it is to do with the male ego and racism. With the Jews it is to do with religious fantasy, and the desire to expand Israel's boundaries. Israel was always a little geograhgical strip throughout history, and 'Eratz' Israel was an idea. The Jew confident that he controls America now feels strong enough to turn this religious fantasy into reality via America and Europe (NATO troops are doubling in Afghanistan---getting into a permanent mode). But ultimately this mad Jewish idea must fail because you can't conquer states after states, and Lebanonise them without a fight. Hence the Jews propaganda that fighting 'terrorism' will take many years. What they are really saying is attacking more Muslim states one by one will take a long time, because the Americans and the Israelis obviously need to catch their breath, after attacking another MUSLIM COUNTRY.

The facts are simple, Aryans did not cause the holocaust. Nearly all Aryan countries are dirt poor and quite unremarkable. Their existence in Asia should not cause any insecurities or unwarranted anxieties.

What educated Iranian's have to ask are three small questions:

1. Why are the mullah in power with such a poor record of government? Why did they come into power in 1979? Why is Iran the only country in the world run by religious figures when 192 other UN general assembly countries are not? Iran is not a Democracy, but has the facade of a Democracy. Real power resides with the politically inept/disastrous mullah's via the Guardian Council, The Expediency Council, and the Supreme Leader. Controlling who is a candidate in elections is tantamount to controlling elections outcomes. Of course because of the Israelis, real Democracy could not function and one has only to look at Iraq, the situation in Palestine where they have captured a whole democratically elected cabinet, and finally Lebanon where they are destroying a democracy to be replaced by splinter groups of extreme groups running a none state without infrastructure. Once you have asked yourself this question then ask the next.

2. Are Iranians by nature very religious? Are they fervently more Muslim than say Arabs who do not have mullahs running their country? The answer is of course no! Iranian females have more freedom than their Arab female counterparts even under mullah rule.

3. Then you must ask yourself how on earth the mullahs came to power in the first place in Iran? who helped them into power? For what purpose? Who sustains them in power now with such crazy policies? Fidel Castro spent many years in political and armed struggle before he came to power in 1959. The Communists in Russia spent many decades in political and armed struggle before they finally controlled most of the former Russian empire in 1921. The Communists in China spent many years in political and armed struggle before they came to power in 1949. How did the politically inexperienced mullah's, without any political organisation come to power in Iran suddenly in 1979, without shedding any of their blood , and defeat the TUDEH and the various other anti-SHAH GROUPS.

My articles published in the Tehran Times http://www.tehrantimes.com/Description.asp?Da=7/11/2006&Cat=14&Num=001 and Mehran News http://www.mehrnews.com/en/NewsDetail.aspx?NewsID=351191
tried to differentiate between foreign backed insurgency groups and those that are domestic and home grown. Perhaps my conclusions were a little too simple. Have a read of this excellent article by Justin Raimondo Hamas, Son of Israel published in 01/27/2006 at Antiwar.com http://antiwar.com/justin/archives.php?offset=60, and think again if Hamas is really home grown, or the creation of Israel. Also this article at the excellent antiwar.com by Johnathan Cook, Israel's Disproportionate Violence No Surprise: J. Cook , http://www.antiwar.com/orig/cook.php?articleid=9390 . Thus if the Israelis created Hamas in the 1970's, could not they have also been behind the backing of Fundamentalists in Afghanistan from 1979, and Iran 1979, with the help of the American's, as a long term strategy to destabilise and attack Muslim countries. Hence my theory that the Israelis have been at this covert backing of fundamentalists since the seventies. Initially as a tactical move to counter Nasser's Pan Arabism, and then later to undermine the Socialist PLO, within whose ranks were many prominant Christian's. Then it developed into something wider in Iran and Afghanistan.
Mehrdad Ahankar Kerm

Posted: Nov 09 2006, 10:09 PM

Link
24196 Ernst Schroeder's article "What really happened to the Shah of Iran" presents the sad and tragic truth; the truth as to how certain powers "whelped" and discovered mullah ruhollah khomeini, the sworn enemy of Iran and Iranians. He became the willing tool of International Colonialism and Imperialism. and gladly volunteered to become their "political prostitute" in order to destroy Iran and Iranians, since he (khomeini) was NOT an Iranian, but of British/Indian origins as was stated by the late Senator Massoudi who helped his family. The Senator was immediately murdered by khomeini as soon as he was brought to power.
Mehr-Ali Kalami

Posted: Nov 10 2006, 1:22 AM

Link
24196 Conspiracy theories and philosophies "vindicating" us Iranians and blaming "others" are many; just many. The most to be "blamed
are the several Institutes in the U.S. and England. Notable among them are: The Aspen Institute, The Cato Institute, Council on Foreign Relations, Heritage Foundation, Brookings Intitute among others, and the Tavistock Institute in Sussex Institute to name a few. Singled out as "scoundrels" are : Brzezinski, Vance, Hodding Carter, Michael Blumenthal, George Ball (of the Bilderberg Group), Amb. Sullivan, Bernard Lewis, Richard Falk, Gens. Haig and Hauser et.al. The list continues! But what would these so-called scoundrels gain from such an act of unseating the Shah and replacing him with a poorly educated peripatetic preacher called Ruhollah Khomeini? Many apologists for the late Shah have created in Khomeini an alien of non-Iranian origins, preferably calling him an Indian, and a part British-Indian at the same time! They have also described him as dubious, odd, and a lackey of International Colonialism turned over to the Americans who in turn seated him (Khomeini) on the "pulpit" of power in Tehran! Are such accusations and senseless statements in any form or way going to ameliorate the situation of the presently tormented and suffering Iranians? No and never. We Iranians have throughout history tended to point an accusatory finger at others in case everything we "do" turns out sour!

Best wishes for all my Ultra-Nationalist and Heroic Compatriots in any away from our Aryan Homeland Iran.
Anonymous

Posted: Feb 05 2008, 1:11 PM

Link
165155 I THANK THAT YOU PEOPLE WAS BAD
Anonymous

Posted: Feb 05 2008, 1:14 PM

Link
165155 What Really Happed to the Shah of Iran
By Ernst Schroeder

My name is Ernst Schroeder, and since I have some Iranian friends from school and review your online magazine occasionally, I thought I'd pass on the following three page quote from a book I read a few months ago entitled, "A Century Of War : Anglo-American Oil Politics and the New World Order", which was written by William Engdahl, a German historianm . This is a book about how oil and politics have been intertwined for the past 100 years.

I submit the below passage for direct publishing on your website, as I think the quote will prove to be significant for anyone of Persian descent.

"In November 1978, President Carter named the Bilderberg group's George Ball, another member of the Trilateral Commission, to head a special White House Iran task force under the National Security Council's Brzezinski. Ball recommended that Washington drop support for the Shah of Iran and support the fundamentalistic Islamic opposition of Ayatollah Khomeini. Robert Bowie from the CIA was one of the lead 'case officers' in the new CIA-led coup against the man their covert actions had placed into power 25 years earlier.

Their scheme was based on a detailed study of the phenomenon of Islamic fundamentalism, as presented by British Islamic expert, Dr. Bernard Lewis, then on assignment at Princeton University in the United States. Lewis's scheme, which was unveiled at the May 1979 Bilderberg meeting in Austria, endorsed the radical Muslim Brotherhood movement behind Khomeini, in order to promote balkanization of the entire Muslim Near East along tribal and religious lines. Lewis argued that the West should encourage autonomous groups such as the Kurds, Armenians, Lebanese Maronites, Ethiopian Copts, Azerbaijani Turks, and so forth. The chaos would spread in what he termed an 'Arc of Crisis,' which would spill over into Muslim regions of the Soviet Union.

The coup against the Shah, like that against Mossadegh in 1953, was run by British and American intelligence, with the bombastic American, Brzezinski, taking public 'credit' for getting rid of the 'corrupt' Shah, while the British characteristically remained safely in the background.

During 1978, negotiations were under way between the Shah's government and British Petroleum for renewal of the 25-year old extraction agreement. By October 1978, the talks had collapsed over a British 'offer' which demanded exclusive rights to Iran's future oil output, while refusing to guarantee purchase of the oil. With their dependence on British-controlled export apparently at an end, Iran appeared on the verge of independence in its oil sales policy for the first time since 1953, with eager prospective buyers in Germany, France, Japan and elsewhere. In its lead editorial that September, Iran's Kayhan International stated:


In retrospect, the 25-year partnership with the [British Petroleum] consortium and the 50-year relationship with British Petroleum which preceded it, have not been satisfactory ones for Iran … Looking to the future, NIOC [National Iranian Oil Company] should plan to handle all operations by itself.


London was blackmailing and putting enormous economic pressure on the Shah's regime by refusing to buy Iranian oil production, taking only 3 million or so barrels daily of an agreed minimum of 5 million barrels per day. This imposed dramatic revenue pressures on Iran, which provided the context in which religious discontent against the Shah could be fanned by trained agitators deployed by British and U.S. intelligence. In addition, strikes among oil workers at this critical juncture crippled Iranian oil production.

As Iran's domestic economic troubles grew, American 'security' advisers to the Shah's Savak secret police implemented a policy of ever more brutal repression, in a manner calculated to maximize popular antipathy to the Shah. At the same time, the Carter administration cynically began protesting abuses of 'human rights' under the Shah.

British Petroleum reportedly began to organize capital flight out of Iran, through its strong influence in Iran's financial and banking community. The British Broadcasting Corporation's Persian-language broadcasts, with dozens of Persian-speaking BBC 'correspondents' sent into even the smallest village, drummed up hysteria against the Shah. The BBC gave Ayatollah Khomeini a full propaganda platform inside Iran during this time. The British government-owned broadcasting organization refused to give the Shah's government an equal chance to reply. Repeated personal appeals from the Shah to the BBC yielded no result. Anglo-American intelligence was committed to toppling the Shah. The Shah fled in January, and by February 1979, Khomeini had been flown into Tehran to proclaim the establishment of his repressive theocratic state to replace the Shah's government.

Reflecting on his downfall months later, shortly before his death, the Shah noted from exile,


I did not know it then – perhaps I did not want to know – but it is clear to me now that the Americans wanted me out. Clearly this is what the human rights advocates in the State Department wanted … What was I to make of the Administration's sudden decision to call former Under Secretary of State George Ball to the White House as an adviser on Iran? … Ball was among those Americans who wanted to abandon me and ultimately my country.[1][1]


With the fall of the Shah and the coming to power of the fanatical Khomeini adherents in Iran, chaos was unleashed. By May 1979, the new Khomeini regime had singled out the country's nuclear power development plans and announced cancellation of the entire program for French and German nuclear reactor construction.

Iran's oil exports to the world were suddenly cut off, some 3 million barrels per day. Curiously, Saudi Arabian production in the critical days of January 1979 was also cut by some 2 million barrels per day. To add to the pressures on world oil supply, British Petroleum declared force majeure and cancelled major contracts for oil supply. Prices on the Rotterdam spot market, heavily influenced by BP and Royal Cutch Shell as the largest oil traders, soared in early 1979 as a result. The second oil shock of the 1970s was fully under way.

Indications are that the actual planners of the Iranian Khomeini coup in London and within the senior ranks of the U.S. liberal establishment decided to keep President Carter largely ignorant of the policy and its ultimate objectives. The ensuing energy crisis in the United States was a major factor in bringing about Carter's defeat a year later.

There was never a real shortage in the world supply of petroleum. Existing Saudi and Kuwaiti production capacities could at any time have met the 5-6 million barrels per day temporary shortfall, as a U.S. congressional investigation by the General Accounting Office months later confirmed.

Unusually low reserve stocks of oil held by the Seven Sisters oil multinationals contributed to creating a devastating world oil price shock, with prices for crude oil soaring from a level of some $14 per barrel in 1978 towards the astronomical heights of $40 per barrel for some grades of crude on the spot market. Long gasoline lines across America contributed to a general sense of panic, and Carter energy secretary and former CIA director, James R. Schlesinger, did not help calm matters when he told Congress and the media in February 1979 that the Iranian oil shortfall was 'prospectively more serious' than the 1973 Arab oil embargo.[2][2]

The Carter administration's Trilateral Commission foreign policy further ensured that any European effort from Germany and France to develop more cooperative trade, economic and diplomatic relations with their Soviet neighbor, under the umbrella of détente and various Soviet-west European energy agreements, was also thrown into disarray.

Carter's security adviser, Zbigniew Brzezinski, and secretary of state, Cyrus Vance, implemented their 'Arc of Crisis' policy, spreading the instability of the Iranian revolution throughout the perimeter around the Soviet Union. Throughout the Islamic perimeter from Pakistan to Iran, U.S. initiatives created instability or worse."


-- William Engdahl, A Century of War: Anglo-American Oil Politics and the New World Order, © 1992, 2004. Pluto Press Ltd. Pages 171-174.

[1][1] In 1978, the Iranian Ettelaat published an article accusing Khomeini of being a British agent. The clerics organized violent demonstrations in response, which led to the flight of the Shah months later. See U.S. Library of Congress Country Studies, Iran. The Coming of the Revolution. December 1987. The role of BBC Persian broadcasts in the ousting of the Shah is detailed in Hossein Shahidi. 'BBC Persian Service 60 years on.' The Iranian. September 24, 2001. The BBC was so much identified with Khomeini that it won the name 'Ayatollah BBC.'

[2][2] Comptroller General of the United States. 'Iranian Oil Cutoff: Reduced Petroleum Supplies and Inadequate U.S. Government Response.' Report to Congress by General Accounting Office. 1979.


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Rostam Koroush

Posted: Mar 27 2008, 5:26 AM

Link
2076 Shahanshah Aryamehr, in spite of hs sucesses in modernizing Iran and making it more secular, depended too much on America and UK. This is what came to haunt him. The 1970's were a time of rapid transformation - westernization of Iran, but unfortunatly we know Shah pumped Billions of money into things like miliitary, while lots of people had no access to sanitation, good housing, electricity,and corruption expanded, inflaton increased. I fully agree that US and UK sensed that Iran was in difficulty, and no doubt they meddles by "stoking and adding mre fire" and thus sponsored their new student with fanfare, called Khomeini. Our King realized his mistakes, albeit late and under pressure, and wanted truly to make amends with Iranians and give democracy, but it was too late, he had lost trust and people were so brainwashed. For me living in exile since then it is clear that US also did its best to dissuade Iranian army from coup d'etat against mullahs, the millitary in Feb 1979 wanted to do it, Americans warned them not to , unless they wanted to loose their support. Both British and American goverments should be put on trial for the endles misery they brought upon my fellow Iranians who are suffocating under the yoke of theocratic oppression from Theran.
khosro fravahar

Posted: May 26 2009, 10:01 AM

Link
62178 as IRANIAN, i have to say:

Iranian monarchy was over 2500 years old, survived many threats inthe history, but not Jimmy carter.

2 kings of Pahlavi dynasty 1925-1979 are known in iranian history to be savior and modernizer of iran, then former ghajar dynsty had sold out iran to british and russian imperialists, iran was fully broken as reza shah the great came on power. He and his son Muhammed reza shah pahlavi restored iranian national identity. Naturally the backwarded elements of former ghajar aristocrcy, clerics, feudalists and communists tried to overthrow the pahlavi dynasty many times. Muhammed reza shah 1941-1979 wil remain in iranian history as a victim of a nasty and highly successful propganda war against him, one example of this nasty propaganda war is the faked legend of coup of 1953, that is based on totlally faked infos, everybody who study detalis of the history of iran, constitution law of iran, the biography of ghajar aristocrat mosadegh, the role of communist TUDE party will see how faked that fable was. I recomment two books for those are interested in facts just google two names DR ali Mirfetros and dr matini, both have written two books in persian language about fable of 1953 that are going to get translaetd very soon in english.
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Sarcastic "God Bless You" Triggers Miami Cop To Go On Psychotic Tirade - 10/29Graphic Video Released in "Firing Squad" Style Police Killing of Mentally Ill Man - 10/29Cop Attempts to Tackle Topless Protester, Rams Head First Into Wall Instead - 10/29Dramatic Video Shows Man Refusing to Lie Down For Police, Despite Guns Pointed at Him - 10/27Fed Using Uber Service Points Gun at Driver's Head: "Do You Want To Live Or Die?" - 10/29Court: No Relief For Man Falsely Accused Of Running Red Light - 10/29Zombies Are Us: The Walking Dead in the American Police State - 10/29White House Aims to Replace Website Passwords With Federal Authentication Scheme - 10/29

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